So you have some white flowers but actually wouldn’t they look good with a bit of red in them? Or maybe blue? Not only are they pretty but can be used to demonstrate transpiration.
How could you do this? Well with what looks like a little bit of magic and a huge dollop of science!
Get your lovely white flowers – carnations are a good one to use! (Obviously mummy’s I do these flower experiments for you too!)
Strangely celery also works really well!
Trim them at the stalks
Get your vase and fill with water – add some food colouring of your choice.
Place in your flowers and wait.
Usually you can see effects within a few hours!
Be generous with the food dye!
This one is yellow and black!
The science bit
The reason this happens is because of something called the transpiration stream. This is the movement of water up the stem of a plant from root to leaf when water is lost from the plant due to evaporation occurring at the leaves. Firstly water is absorbed by the root and moves through root hair cells via the process of osmosis (we will look at this another day!). It then moves into the xylem vessel which is the tube that carries the water up the plant. Plants are not like us with pumping mechanism that pushes our blood around, so water moves up the vessel by adhesion (being attracted to the side of the vessel) and cohesion (water molecules being attracted to each other). Therefore when water evaporates from the top of the leaves it changes the pressure in the vessel and pulls up the column of water to replace the water lost.
The best way to consider this is to imagine you have a thick shake – the straw can’t carry the shake up it, but if you suck from the top, you change the pressure and force the shake up the straw. It moves in a column because the molecules are attracted to each other.